Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) as determined by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”).
The Merger was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP (the “Reverse Recapitalization”). Under this method of accounting, BRPA is treated as the “acquired” company and NeuroRx is treated as the acquirer for financial reporting purposes.
Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Reverse Recapitalization was treated as the equivalent of NeuroRx issuing stock for the net assets of BRPA, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of BRPA are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.
NeuroRx was determined to be the accounting acquirer based on the following predominant factors:
The consolidated assets, liabilities, and results of operations prior to the Reverse Recapitalization are those of NeuroRx. The shares and corresponding capital amounts and losses per share, prior to the Merger, have been retroactively restated based on shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Merger.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in its financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The most significant estimates in the Company’s financial statements relate to the valuation of common and preferred stock, stock options, warrants, and Earnout Cash liability. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.
Certain Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties including the risk of failure to secure additional funding to properly execute the Company’s business plan. The Company is subject to risks that are common to companies in the pharmaceutical industry, including, but not limited to, development by the Company or its competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, reliance on third party manufacturers, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with regulatory requirements, and overall geopolitical, economic and pandemic risks.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of 90 days or less at acquisition to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company does not have any cash equivalents.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements, provides guidance on the development and disclosure of fair value measurements. Under this accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance classifies fair value measurements in one of the following three categories for disclosure purposes:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 prices for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and values determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation. (Refer to Note 12)
The Company’s functional currency is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of our foreign operation is the respective local currency. Assets and liabilities of foreign operation denominated in local currencies are translated at the spot rate in effect at the applicable reporting date. The consolidated statements of operations are translated at the weighted average rate of exchange during the applicable period. The resulting unrealized cumulative translation adjustment is not material to the financial statements.
Accounts receivable consist of balances due from collaborative partners. In determining collectability, historical trends are evaluated, and specific partner issues are reviewed on a periodic basis to arrive at appropriate allowances.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Off-Balance Sheet Risk
Cash is the only financial instrument that is potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk. The Company’s cash is deposited in accounts at large financial institutions, and amounts may exceed federally insured limits. The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institutions in which the cash is held. The Company has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk of loss.
Research and Development Costs
The Company’s research and development expenses consist primarily of costs associated with the Company’s clinical trials, salaries, payroll taxes, employee benefits, and stock-based compensation charges for those individuals involved in ongoing research and development efforts. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to interest rate, market, or foreign currency risks. The Company evaluates all of its financial instruments, to determine if such instruments contain features that qualify as embedded derivatives. Embedded derivatives must be separately measured from the host contract if all the requirements for bifurcation are met. The assessment of the conditions surrounding the bifurcation of embedded derivatives depends on the nature of the host contract. Bifurcated embedded derivatives are recognized at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of operations each period. Bifurcated embedded derivatives are classified with the related host contract in the Company’s balance sheet.
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards with graded-vesting schedules are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s reasonable estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. Stock-based compensation costs are recorded in general and administrative or research and development costs in the consolidated statements of operations based upon the underlying individual’s role at the Company.
Modification of stock options and warrants
A change in any of the terms or conditions of stock options and warrants is accounted for as a modification. Incremental stock-based compensation cost is measured as the excess, if any, of the fair value of the modified option/warrant over the fair value of the original option/warrant immediately before its terms are modified, measured based on the fair value of the ordinary shares and other pertinent factors at the modification date. For vested stock options and warrants to board members, we recognize incremental compensation cost in the period the modification occurs. For unvested stock options, we recognize over the remaining requisite service period, the sum of the incremental compensation cost and the remaining unrecognized compensation cost for the original award on the modification date. If the fair value of the modified option is lower than the fair value of the original option immediately before modification, the minimum compensation cost we recognize is the cost of the original award. The accounting for incremental
fair value of warrants is based on the specific facts and circumstances related to the modification which may result in a reduction of additional paid-in capital, recognition of costs for services rendered, or recognized as a deemed dividend.
The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own common stock and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.
For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded at their initial fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations. The fair value of the Placement Warrants was estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation approach (see Notes 10 and 12).
Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit would more likely than not be realized assuming examination by the taxing authority. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. The Company recognizes any interest and penalties accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense.
Loss Per Share
Basic loss per share of common stock is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share excludes, when applicable, the potential impact of stock options, common stock warrant shares, and other dilutive instruments because their effect would be anti-dilutive in the periods in which the Company incurs a net loss.
The following outstanding shares of common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of the diluted net loss per share attributable to common stock for the periods in which a net loss is presented because their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes: Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This guidance removes certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. This guidance also clarifies and simplifies other areas of ASC 740. This ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods
within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company does not expect this guidance to have a significant impact on its financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt — Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging — Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current GAAP. The ASU removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception and it also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 and adoption must be as of the beginning of the Company’s annual fiscal year. We adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021, with no material impact on our financial statements.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt - Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) - Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchange of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options, which provides guidance for a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange as (i) an adjustment to equity and, if so, the related earnings per share (EPS) effects, if any, or (ii) an expense and, if so, the manner and pattern of recognition. The amendments in this ASU are effective January 1, 2022, including interim periods. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted ASU 2021-04 on January 1, 2021, with no material impact on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef